HISTORY Of MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM




Geographical Location
It is geographically very strategic location of the Majapahit empire in the valley because of the wide river, the River Brantas and Solo, as well as its tributaries are navigable up to the upstream.
The formation history of the kingdom of Majapahit
In the event of an attack Jayakatwang, Raden Wijaya charge facing the north, it turns out larger attacks actually launched from the south. So when Raden Wijaya back to the palace, he saw the Royal Palace Singasari running out engulfed in flames and heard Kertanegara have been killed along with other dignitaries. Eventually he fled with the remnants of his army who are still loyal and helped villagers Kugagu. Feel safe after he went to ask for protection from Aryawiraraja Madura. Thanks to his help he succeeded to the throne, with the area presented to the Raden Wijaya attractiveness as a regional power. When it comes to Java Mongol army led by Shih-Pi, Ike-Mise, and you Hsing with the aim of punishing Kertanegara, Raden Wijaya then exploit the situation to work together to attack Jayakatwang. After Jayakatwang killed, the Mongol army feasted kemenanganya celebrate. The opportunity was also utilized by Raden Wijaya to turn against the Mongol army, so the Mongol armies were driven from Java and returned to negrinya. Then in 1293 Raden Wijaya ascended the throne and the title of Sri Kertajasa Jayawardhana.
Majapahit kings
Kertajasa Jawardhana (1293 – 1309)
Is the founder of the Majapahit kingdom, during his reign, Raden Wijaya aided by those who participated instrumental in pioneering the establishment of the kingdom of Majapahit, a very large Aryawiraraja his services were given dominion over the eastern region include Lumajang, Blambangan. Raden Wijaya ruled very well and wisely. The composition of his administration are no different from the composition of government Singasari Kingdom.
Jayanegara King (1309-1328)
Kala Gemet succeeded his father ascended the throne with the title of Sri Jayanegara. In the period pemerintahannnya marked by revolts. For example rebellion Ranggalawe 1231 saka, saka 1233 uprising Ox Sora, rebellion Savior demung 1235 saka, saka 1236 Blue Elephant insurrection, rebellion Nambi, Lasem, Semi, Kuti with Bandaderga events. Rebellion Kuti is a dangerous rebellion, almost tear down the kingdom of Majapahit. But all that can be overcome. Jayanegara king himself was killed by his doctors called Tanca. Tanca eventually assassinated by Gajah Mada anyway.
Tribuwana Tunggadewi (1328 – 1350)
Jayanegara king died without leaving a putrapun, therefore, who should be king is Gayatri, but because he had become a monk then replaced by his daughter with a degree Tribuwana Bhre Kahuripan Tunggadewi, assisted by her husband named Kartawardhana. In the year 1331 conducted by the rebellion arose Sadeng area and Keta (Besuki). This rebellion was crushed by Gajah Mada who was then serving Patih Daha. For his services was appointed as Gajah Mada of the Majapahit Kingdom Mahapatih Pu replace the Dragon. Gajah Mada and then trying to show his loyalty, he aspired to unite the archipelago, assisted by MPU Nala and Adityawarman. In 1339, Gajah Mada swore not to eat the Palapa before the archipelago together. Now known as the Oath sworn Palapa, as for the contents of amukti palapa is as follows: “Seagrass luwas lost archipelago isum amakti palapa, seagrass lost ring Desert, Ceram ring, ring the Sunda, Palembang ring, ring Tumasik, Samana sun amukti palapa”. Later Gajah Mada perform conquests.
Hayam Wuruk
Hayam Wuruk ascended the throne at a very young age of 16 years and hold Rajasanegara. In the reign of Hayam Wuruk Mahapatih accompanied by Gajah Mada, Majapahit reach golden age. From the Book Negerakertagama can be seen that the area of ​​power during the reign of Hayam Wuruk, nearly coextensive with the territory of Indonesia is now, even the influence of the Majapahit empire to tettangga countries. The only areas not subject to the powers of the Sunda kingdom of Majapahit was then under the rule of Maharaja Sri baduga. Hayam Wuruk intend to take a Sundanese princess to be queen. After the daughter Sundanese (Diah Pitaloka) and his father Maharaja Sri Baduga with the authorities in the Sunda Bubat, Gajah Mada perform tricks, Gajah Mada did not want the marriage to the princess of Sunda Hayam Wuruk carried away. He wants to be presented to the Majapahit princess Sundanese (as tribute). Then there was disagreement and finally Bubat war. Many of the victims on both sides, Sri Baduga fall, the daughter of Sunda suicide.
Gajah Mada died in 1364, the Kingdom of Majapahit mahapatih lost a second to none. To select a successor is not an easy job. Saptaprabu Council which had several times held a meeting to choose a successor to Gajah Mada eventually decided that the duke of Gajah Mada Hamungkubhumi not be changed “to fill the gap in the implementation of the government appointed Tandi sebagais Wridhamantri MPU, MPU Nala as a minister and governor Amancanegara Dami as Yuamentri. King Hayam Wuruk died in 1389.
Wikramawardhana
Kusumawardhani crown princess who succeeded his father ascended the throne Wikramawardhana husband. In practice Wikramawardhanalah who run the government. While Bhre Wirabhumi Hayam Wuruk children of concubines, because Bhre Wirabhumi (Princess Hayam Wuruk) of concubines he is not entitled to occupy the throne however he was still given the power to rule in Eastern Majapahit, the area of ​​Blambangan. Power struggle between Wikramawardhana with Bhre Wirabhumi Paregreg called war.
Wikramawardhana died in 1429, subsequent kings reign in succession is Suhita, Kertawijaya, Rajasa Wardhana, Purwawisesa and UB V, which did not escape marked the seizure of power.
Source of History
Sources concerning the history and development of the Majapahit kingdom stand comes from various sources namely:
Inscription Butok (1244 years). The inscription was issued by Raden Wijaya after he succeeded to the throne of the kingdom. This inscription contains Singasari empire collapse events and the struggle to establish the kingdom of Raden Wijaya
Song of Songs and Song Harsawijaya Wijayakrama Bannerman, the second song tells of Raden Wijaya when facing the enemy of kediri and early years development of Majapahit
Book Pararaton, tells about the reign of kings and Majapahit Singasari
Book Negarakertagama, tells about a trip Rajam Hayam Wuruk to East Java.
The political life
Majapahit always run good neighborliness politics with foreign kingdoms, such as the Kingdom of China, Ayodhya (Siam), Champa and Cambodia. This is evident around the year 1370 – 1381, Majapahit has several times sent envoys to China friendship. It is known from the Chinese news chronicles of the Ming Dynasty.
King of the kingdom of Majapahit as a statesman eminent politicians as well as reliable. This is evidenced by Raden Wiajaya, Hayam Wuruk, and the Supreme Patih Gajahmada in an attempt to realize the big kingdom, strong and authoritative. The structure of government at the center of Majapahit rule:
1. King
2. Yuaraja or Kumaraja (Viceroy)
3. Rakryan Mahamantri Katrini
a. Mahamantri i-Hino
b. Mahamantri i-upstream
c. Mahamantri i-sirikan
4. Rakryan Mahamantri ri Pakirakiran
a. Rakryan Mahapatih (Commander / Hamangkubhumi)
b. Rakryan Tumenggung (commander of the Kingdom)
c. Rakryan demung (Royal Household Manager)
d. Rakryan Kemuruhan (Liaison and protocol tasks) and
e. Rakryan Rangga (Assistant Commander)
5. Dharmadyaka occupied by two people, each dharmadyaka assisted by a number of religious officials called Upapat. At the time there are 7 Upapati Hayam Wuruk.
In addition to officials who have been mentioned under the king of kings there are a number of areas (your majesty bharata) who each ruled an area. In addition to the kings of the unisex civilian officials and military. From the composition of his administration we can see that the system of government and political life has been very regular job Majapahit.
Economic Social and Cultural life
Relationships forged friendships with tentangga country was very supportive in the field of economy (shipping and trade). Majapahit empire consists of the island and archipelago areas that produce a variety of sources of merchandise.
Merchandise marketed include rice, pepper, ivory, tin, iron, diamonds, fish, cloves, nutmeg, sandalwood and cotton.
In the world of trading, the Majapahit kingdom holds two very important roles.
As the kingdom Manufacturers – Majapahit has a vast territory with a very fertile soil conditions. With a fertile area that then the kingdom of Majapahit is a leading producer of merchandise.
As the Kingdom Broker – the kingdom of Majapahit brought crops from one area to another area. State of society which regularly support the creation of cultural works of quality. evidence of cultural development in the kingdom of Majapahit can be known through the relics of the following:
Temple: Among other temples Upgrading (Blitar), Temple and temple Tegalwangi Mice (Trowulan).
Literature: The literature of Majapahit era can we distinguish a
Majapahit Period Early Literature
Negarakertagama Book, written by mpu Prapanca
Sutasoma Book, written by mpu Tantular
Arjunawiwaha Book, written by mpu Tantular
Book Kunjarakarna
Book Parhayajna
Literature Majapahit Period End
The results of the end of the Majapahit era literature written in Central Java, some of which are written in the form of song (ballad) and written in prose form (prose). The results of the most important literature include:
Book Prapanca, it tells the kings of Majapahit Singasari and
Book Sundayana, the contents of the event Bubat
Book Sarandaka, it’s about rebellion sora
Book Ranggalawe, it’s about rebellion Ranggalawe
Panjiwijayakrama, it describes the history of Raden Wijaya to be king
Usana Book of Java, the contents of the conquest of the island of Bali by Gajah Mada and Aryadamar, transfer to the Majapahit palace Gelgel and crushing giant king named Maya Denawa.
Book of Usana Bali, it tentanng chaos on the island of Bali.
Besides these books there is still more important literary books at the end of the Majapahit era such as the Book of Uncle Cangah, Tantu Pagelaran, Candidate Charcoal, Korawasrama, Babhulisah, Tantri Kamandaka and Pancatantra.







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devilqueen_24 mengatakan...

nice theme.

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